The lithosphere is rock and soil that surrounds Earth and contains living organisms. Mining and pollution, among others, have led to the degradation and erosion of soil, the pollution of groundwater resources and the disruption of fragile rock formations. Learn more about how the lithosphere is impacted by human activity.
Everywhere in the world, soils are irreversibly degraded and polluted with serious risks for ecosystem integrity and food security. Recent scientific studies highlight the significance of soil for carbon sequestration.